Eight Metre "VERANO II" (Snarken)
  => S-rule 1902 (1903)
  => R-rule 1907
  => S-rule 1917
  => R-rule 1919
  => R1919 amendments 1921 - 1928
  => S-rule 1926
  => R-rule 1933
  => Summary
This section is under development:

Copyright Ole C. Östlund, Trondheim, Norway
Graduated Aeronautical Engineer from Royal Technical University, 
Stockholm, Sweden 1970.
Cruising versus Racing

Yacht hulls increased under the 2nd International Rule compared to the 1st Rule. The yachts became more cruiser friendly with dry front deck. Cabin roof was not a requirement on an Eight Metre in 1919. This became a permanent requirement in 1928, although the freeboard on the Eight Metre increased during the period 1919 to 1928, and as such a cabin roof was not as needed as in 1919.
The inclusion of the Genoa jib in 1926 changed the situation. More sail created more healing forces. The in 1920 change in bow girth measurement resulted in sharper and narrower bows. The Genoa jib called for larger and wider bow sections with increased buoyancy. Most designers chose to keep the bow girth measurement down which again resulted in wet front decks less suitable for cruising. The situation overcome by the 2nd International Rule in 1919, reverted with the allowance of the Genoa jib without penalty in the 1926 Rule extension and 1928 Rule Amendment.
Many yachtsmen started looking for cruising design outside the R-rule formula. In Norway several one off designs for cruising hit the water in early 1930 ties. The wet front deck situation with genoa was partly overcome by change in bow girth measurement under the 3rd International R-rule in Oct. 1933. Nevertheless the situation in Norway in end of 1937 was that since 1930 eight (8) yachts 8mR and above had been constructed in accordance with the R-rule, and since 1932 twelve (12) yachts had been constructed outside the R-rule.

The first one was “Ilmen 4” owner Ludvig Svinndal 1932 then “Tamara 9” owner Halfdan Hansen 1933, “Solgang” R.Ugelstad 1934, “Irene 8” Eugen Lunde 1935, “Ilmen 5” Svinndal 1937. In 1938 one 12 metre CR owner Einar Stange, and four 10mCR owners Halfdan Hansen, Skougaard, Dannevig and N.N. 10mCR overall length 16 metres, floating waterline length 10.7 metres, beam 3.35 metres sail area 95sqm, displacement 14.5 ton including 8 ton ballast keel. Engine to be installed.

More seaworthy and offshore going yachts were demanded. This proved the need for a new and more cruiser friendly rule, a combined cruising and racing rule promoting high freeboard, greater beam and less sail area, similar to those yachts constructed in Norway outside the International R-rule.
As such I.Y.R.U. at their meeting in London in September 1937 decided to invite Royal Ocean Racing Club (R.O.R.C.) and national organizations in America, Scandinavia and Germany to come forward with their suggestions. A subcommittee within I.Y.R.U was established with members from Britain, Norway, Sweden, Germany and Netherlands. The committee to coordinate their work with N.A.Y.R.U. (North America Yacht Racing Union) for if possible find a common solution.
A meeting was held in Oslo on November 8th 1937 with yachtsmen from all Scandinavian countries present. The main question was if the International Rule could accommodate the need for less expensive and more cruiser friendly yachts, or if a separate rule was required. In America the Cruising Club of America developed the “Bermuda-rule”. In UK Royal Ocean Racing Club developed the R.O.R.C. rule. Germany developed their KR-rule.
Crown Prince Olav stated continuity was a matter of importance as when the 2nd International Rule was agreed upon in London 1919. The meeting concluded with recommending a committee to further look into the matter.
The committee chaired by Crown Prince Olav with members Johan Anker, Bjarne Aas, Halfdan Hansen, Eugen Lunde and Henrik Robert, presented their recommendation in spring 1938.

L is corrected length, S sail area, B beam, D depth, P displacement, A bow profile, C stern profile, F freeboard. For details ref. Seilas yachting magazine 1938 page 65 and 66.
A paper by Professor K. Ljungberg, Sweden, was presented at the I.Y.R.U. meeting in London on November 15th 1938. It was concluded that all documents had to be translated to English for further evaluation. This was very much the situation within Europe’s sailing nations leading up to 1939, when the sky again darkened due to political confrontation on the Continent.
In Norway the Cruising yachts had not been given any racing sail no. However they could measure in under the N.L. Rule (go to S-Rule 1926) and as such participate in racing. With increased number of unidentified yachts, the national sailing authority in Norway decided in 1938 that these yachts could be classified under the old Class identification letters E (12sl), F (10sl), H (8sl) and L (6sl), such as yachts with waterline similar to an Eight Metre were classified together with the old H and sH yachts (ref. Seilas yachting magazine 1938 page 33). Sail racing no listed under the H Class were H1-H20 for 1st Rule yachts and sH21 – sH38 for the converted and modified 1st Rule yachts (the Scandinavian S-rule of 1917).

The last sail racing no given under the sH classification was sH38 “Snarken” (ex Idyll III, ex Fandango 2, ex Danseuse, ex Siva, ex Verano II) owned by Knut Aspelin, Oslo, designed by Johan Anker, drawing date 27.09.1918 and laid down at Anker & Jensen Yard in Vollen, Asker 1919, yard no 223. Modified and commissioned to the 2nd International R-Rule of 1919, Certificate dated June 2nd 1920 with sail racing no 8N11, name “Verano II”. In 1921 commissioned to the modified 1st R-rule, the S-rule of 1917, Certificate dated May 14th1921, name “Verano II”. Later given the sail racing no sH38 as the last Eight Metre listed under the sH register, ref. KNS register 1933-34. The S-rule was agreed for a 5 years period, 1917 - 1922.



KNS yacht register 1933-1934
Racing sail numbers listed in the R-1907 and modified R-1907 (S-1917) Class.

The first Eight Metre Cruiser to be listed was H39 “Caramba III” constructed 1940 at Soon Slip og Baatbyggeri, designed by Knud Reimers. Other well known yachts listed and sailing today are H42 “Vinga 5”, constructed 1946, H45 “Carmen 4” constructed by Anker & Jensen in 1914 (8.5.sl) and designed by Christian Jensen, H51 “Lydia” constructed by Anker & Jensen in 1935 and designed by Johan Anker.

H and sH yacht register:
Sailing no as identification of racing yachts was introduced in Norway around 1917. Before then identification of yachts were by the owners flag in top of mast. Numbers listed in register are not chronological for when the yacht was laid down, but reflects when they are given racing numbers.
Eight Metre yachts commissioned to the 1st International R-rule (R-1907) were given Class identification letter H and individual numbers from 1-20.
Eight Metres commissioned to the modified 1st Rule i.e. the Scandinavian S-rule of 1917 were given a half sized letter s in addition, sH, and individual numbers from 21-38.
Eight Metre yachts commissioned to the 2nd International R-rule (R-1919) were given Class identification 8, national identification letter, for Norway N, and individual numbers from 1 to ....
Some yachts were commissioned to both the 1st Rule/modified 1st Rule S-Class and 2nd Rule Class in which cases both numbers are listed.

Race Sailing no – 1st Rule (R-1907) and modified 1st Rule (S-1917)
Please forward any information and corrections to oco@tele2.no
No                   Yacht names                                        Year constructed, design by.
 H 1                      Juno - Pomona                                                          1897 Larvik, Collin Archer
 H 2                       Ragni 2                                                                        1915 Asker, A&J
 H 3                 Bibbs – Magg                                             1916 Asker, A&J, J.Anker
 H 4                 Maud 2 – Teja 2 – Gjøken – Heikah               1908 Asker, A&J, J.Anker
 H 5                 Quinta                                                        1914 Asker, A&J, J.Anker
 H 6                 Guri – Nina III – Boheme                              1915 Asker, A&J, J.Anker
 H 7                 Garraveen – Eleonore                               1914 South., Morgan Giles
 H 8                 Lars Kagg                                                   1913 Gøteborg, W. Fife
 H 9                 Brita – Tere - Nadine – Nadja                        1913 Gøteborg, J.Anker
 H10                Liss 2 – Hazard                                            1910 Asker, A&J, J.Anker
 H11 (8N16)    Sans Atout - Atair                                          1908 Asker, A&J, J.Anker
 H12                The Truant                                                    1910 Fairlie, W.Fife
 H13                Mossa II                                                    1914 Gøteborg, Axel Nygren
 H14                Taifun – Pan 3                                              1911 Asker, J.Anker
 H15                Condor – Rigolo 3                                         1910 Asker, J.Anker
 H16                Pingvin V – Shanty – Petrel – Te-Hå – Eker    1910 Rostock
 H17                Ierne                                                            1914 Fairlie, W.fife
 H19                Lucie IV – Bror 2 – Magel                              1912 Langesund, J.Anker
 H20                Sarina                                                          1912 Burnham, G.N.Laws
Modified 1st Rule (S-1917) racing sail no.              laid down/commissioned, designer 
For information on each yacht go to 8mS yacht data register. The first 8mS yacht given sail no was sH20 named Borgila GKSS. She was acquired to Norway and given new owners sail no sH32 named "Sif". Sail no H20 was given to 1912 8mR "Sarina".

sH21              Bobo II                                                       1918 Bygdøy, Svenningsen
sH22 (8N1)     Brand V                                                      1918 Asker, A&J, J.Anker
sH23              Ariadne                                                      1918 Københ, A.v.Lindholm
sH24              Pingvin IV-Tornado-Banzai II-Tamara VII         1918 Asker, A&J, J.Anker
sH25 (8N3)     Apache-Boreas-Gaia                                    1918 Asker, A&J, J.Anker
sH26 (8N5)     Hei-paa-dig, Encore, Rural, Stri, Vilja            1918 Asker, A&J, J.Anker
sH27 (8N6)     La France, Lyn, Erle II                                  1918 Asker, A&J, J.Anker
sH28 (8N13)   Baus II, Spurt IV, Arabella, Nøkk4, Njord       1918 Asker, A&J, J.Anker
sH29 (8N7)     AljucaIII, TopII, ArabellaII, Sølvi3, Kråka4        1918 Asker, A&J, J.Anker
sH30 (8N8)     Bidevind                                                      1918 Fredrikstad, Bj. Aas
sH31 (8N17)   Trolljo III                                                      1919 Asker, A&J, J.Anker
sH32 (8N14)   Sif,Borgila, Falken, Glunten, Solgang             1918 Gøteborg, Liljegren
sH33 (8N4)     Rocambole, Revanche, Hennessy, Dudu   1918/1919 Asker, A&J, J.Anker
sH34 (8N9)     Betty III - Inger – Madelon                             1919 Asker, A&J, J.Anker
sH35 (8N10)   Knabb, Cat-is-Land                                      1919 Asker, A&J, J.Anker
sH36             Anchen - Inghild                                          1919 Sarpsborg, Svenningsen
sH37 (8N15)  Koh-i-Noor                                                   1919 Asker, A&J, J.Anker
sH38 (8N11)  Snarken, Idyll III, Danseuse,Fandango,Siva  1919/1920 Asker, A&J, J.Anker
                     Verano II
sH38 "Snarken" was the last yacht given S-no. She was laid down in spring 1919 with sail no SH36 before the 2nd R-rule came about and modified from S to R(new)  before launching spring 1920 first certified to R(new) given sail no 8N11 and named "Verano II". Sail no sH36 was given to "Anchen". In 1926 "Snarken" named "Idyl lIII"  was granted to sail in the combined R(old) and S Classs with a S-certificate although she did not comply with S measurement instructions of 1917. She was given sail no sH38.
Race Sailing Numbers – Eight Metre Cruiser Racers (8mCR) and other yachts given H sail no.
Preliminary listings subject to change.
Please forward any information and corrections to oco@tele2.no
H39     Caramba 3                                                            1940 Son, Knud Reimers
H40     Krabat 3 – Tamara 11                                            1946 A&J Eftf.
H41     Arabella – Saga 2                                                  1946 A&J Eftf., Chr. Jensen
H42     Gjøken 6 – Veni – Vinga 5                                     1946 A&J Eftf., Chr. Jensen
H43     Maylis – Graylis (8.5.sl) – Nirvana - Diva                  1914 A&J, Johan Anker
H44     Pamina - Tempo                                                    1936 Berlin
H45     Carmen 4 (8.5sl) - Mitra 2 - Siesta - Quickstep       1914 A&J, Chr. Jensen
H47     Niba 3                                                             1913 Son, omb.1950,J.M.Iversen
H49     Knoll                                                                 1948 A&J Eftf., Sigurd Herbern
H50     Gro 8                                                                1948 A&J Eftf. Herbern
H51     Lydia - Bobben – Sølvi 4 – Gåsungen                   1935 A&J, Johan Anker
H52     Esprit 8                                                              1950 A&J Eftf., Sigurd Herbern
H53     Vigdis – Natasha – Rosita – Dear4                   1917 Son. Iversen, Chr. Jensen
H54     Penelope                                                    1950 Kolbjørnsvik, C.Stephansen
H55     Kampala                                                            1950 Skjeberg, Herbern
H56     Gro 9                                                                        Herberns baatbyggeri
H58     Skagerak                                                              1940 Killingen, Herbern
H59     Bonjo 7                                                                  1952 A&J Eftf., CCS
H60     Arabella 5                                                              1952 A&J Eftf., C.J.
H61     Veni 2 – Gro 10                                                       1953 Skjeberg
H62     Sju – Attaque – Arcadia -                                 1917 Soon, Christian Jensen
H65     Brisxx – Carmensita III – Rigoletto - Morild          1956 Sarpsborg, Linge
H66     Trilby                                                                1954 Drøbak, Herbern
H68     Karita                                                                1957
H69     Sitra                                                                  1957 Linge
H71     NAP 6                                                               1957 Linge
H72     Susan Constant                                                 1957
H73     Esmeralda                                                          1957 Linge
H75     Mikassa II (s)                                                     1958 Hyen, Furuholmen
H78     Inger Ann II                                                          1957 Drøbak
H83     Nikka III (s)                                                         1961 Hagavik, Klingenberg
H85     Miss Dumpling (s)                                                1961 Hagavik, Klingenberg
H87     Miramar                                                               1961 Ekstrand,, Øivinn Ruud
H91     Heilin    (s)                                                           1964 Hagavik, Klingenberg
H93     Henry II (s)                                                           1962 Hagavik, Klingenberg
H95     Pingo (s)                                                               1927 Brevik, omb. 1964
H98     Thekla (s)
 Revision 21.12.2009

NFSU 1967 - N.L.class
sH38 "Snarken" has rounded the upwind mark,
  in lead of her contenders sH28 "Njord" and H42 "Vinga 5".

Added: oco 08.02.2010

In Norway 17 Eight Metres had in 1920 been commissioned to the new international R (1919) rule given the following sail numbers:
8N1   “Brand V”        ex sH22 ”Brand V”             Anker & Jensen 1918  
8N2   “Sildra”            new                                  Anker & Jensen 1920
8N3   “Apache”         ex sH25 “Apache”              Anker & Jensen 1918
8N4   “Rocambole”    ex sH33 “Rocambole”     Anker & Jensen 1918, launched 1919   
8N5   “Hei-paa-dig”    ex sH26 ”Hei-paa-dig”         Anker & Jensen 1918
8N6   ”Lyn”                ex sH27 ”La France”         Anker & Jensen 1918
8N7   “Aljuca”            ex sH29 “Aljuca III”            Anker & Jensen 1918   
8N8   “Bidevind”         ex sH30 “Bidevind”            Bjarne Aas, Fredrikstad 1918
8N9   ”Inger”              ex sH34 ”Betty III”             A&J yard no. 220, 1919
8N10 “Knabb”            ex sH35 “Knabb”               A&J yard no. 221, 1919
8N11 "Verano II"  modified sH36 "N.N"  A&J yard no. 223, 1919, launched 1920
8N12 “Pandora”         converted 9mR “Pandora”    Anker & Jensen 1907
8N13 “Spurt IV”          ex sH28 ”Baus II”             Anker & Jensen 1918
8N14 ”Sif”                  ex sH32 ”Sif” (Borgila)       C.O.Liljegren, Gothenburg 1918
8N15 “Koh-I-Noor”       ex sH37 ”Koh-i-Noor”        A&J yard no. 225,  1919
8N16 ”Sans Atout”     ex H11 “Sans Atout”          Anker & Jensen 1908
8N17 “Trolljo III”          ex sH31 ”Trolljo”            A&J yard no. 227, 1919, reconstr. 1920

Note: A&J means Anker & Jensen, designer Johan Anker. Yard no. 220,221,223, 225 and 227 were all laid down based upon Johan Ankers drawing dated 27-9-1918.

Note on 8N11: A&J yard no. 223 was laid down in 1919, owner Engineer Arne Blakstad and sail racing no. sH36. The contract with Blakstad  was cancelled most probably due to the in summer of 1919 ongoing discussions on the revision of the R-rule. The constructed hull remains onshore and the now vacant sail racing no. sH36, is later in 1919 given to the last 8mS-yacht designed by Svenningsen to be named "Anchen" 
A&J yard no 223  is launched in 1920, modified with permanent cabin roof and her sail area commissioned to the R-rule of Oct.1919. Her owner is Eilert Sundt who names her "Verano II", race sailing no. 8N11, certificate dated June 2nd 1920.
In 1921 "Verano II" also obtaines her S(1917) Certificate. Ref. copy of  certificates included under "Snarken history" part I and part II. Her first sail racing no. sH36 is occupied, and several years later she is given sail racing no sH38 as the last registered S-Eight. Her most known name is "Snarken". In IEMA World Cup regatta at Hankö 1983 she races with sail no. 8N38.

Chronological list of 8mR yachts first commissioned and launched to the 2nd & 3rd International R-rule given sail racing no in Norway 1920 – 1940. Amendments to the R(1919) rule made in force for the particular yacht noted as R(1921), R(1926), R(1928) .
1920    8N 11 “Verano II”      Johan Anker     R(1919)      Anker & Jensen, laid down 1919/modified 1920
           8N 2   ”Sildra”            Johan Anker    R(1919)            Anker & Jensen, drwg of Jan. 1920 
1921    8N 18 ”Brand VI”       Johan Anker     R(1919)           Anker & Jensen
1922    8N 12 ”Bera”              Johan Anker     R(1921)           Anker & Jensen
1923    8N 19 ”Ranja”            Johan Anker     R(1921)           Anker & Jensen
1924    8N 20 ”Varg”               Johan Anker                             Anker & Jensen
1925    8N 21 ”Hvide”             Bjarne Aas       R(1924)           Soon Slip og Baatbyggeri
R(1919) extended from Jan. 1st 1926 - article 20 bow and stern girth exemptions for yachts designed prior to Jan 1st 1920 ended Dec. 31st 1925 -
penalty for overlapping jib not included in measurement instructions from Jan 1st 1926, i.e. R(1926):
1926    8N 22 ”Rollo”             Johan Anker                             Anker & Jensen
1927    8N 23 ”Irene VI”         Bjarne Aas                               Soon Slip og Baatbyggeri
           8N 24 ”Varg III”          Johan Anker                             Anker & Jensen
R (1919) amendment of 1927 demanding cabin roof, max height of sail 17m (2xR+1) above deck, max freeboard “F” in formula, valid from 1.jan 1928 i.e. R(1928):

1928    8N 25 ”Noreg              Johan Anker     R(1928)           Anker & Jensen
           8N 29 ”Ibis”                 Bjarne Aas                               Fredrikstad
1929    8N 27 ”If”                      Bjarne Aas                               Fredrikstad
1930    8N 26 ”Silja”                Johan Anker                             Anker & Jensen
           8N 30 ”Anitra 3”          Johan Anker                      Anker & Jensen (”Rat-Penant”)
1932    8N 28 ”Fenris”            Johan Anker                             Anker & Jensen
R(1919) amendment of Dec. 1932 - max height of foresail on mast 3/4 (2xR+1)= 12.75m, - min weight of mast 145.1 kg

Oct 1933: 3rd. International R-rule - R(1933):
1936    8N31 “Viking”            Johan Anker     R(1933)           Anker & Jensen
Sept 1937: Restriction on min beam in the 3rd R-rule was agreed by I.Y.R.U. made applicable for yachts laid down after Sept. 1937.2.44m for an Eight, max overlap on jib 0.5xR = 4.0m
1938    8N32 “Anne Sophie”    Bjarne Aas                               Fredrikstad
1938    8N33 “Sira”                 Johan Anker                             Anker & Jensen
1939    8N34 "Fröya"              Bjarne Aas                              Fredrikstad

Note: Sail no. 8N12 was in 1920 given to converted 9m "Pandora". When "Pandora" converted back to the 9 s.m. Class sail no 8N12 was given to 8mR "Bera" 1922.

(Update August 23rd 2010)
(Added on July 3rd and 26th 2011)
has been given back her name from the first measurement certificate of June 2nd 1920.
Other names: "Siva", "Danseuse", "Fandango II", "Idyll III", "Snarken", "Elcoma", "Snarken".
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  Ole C. Östlund

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