R (1907) - S (1917) - R (1919)
“Snarken” is an Eight Metre yacht laid down in 1919 based upon Johan Ankers drawing dated 27.09.1918 and launched in 1920, named “Verano II”. She experienced in her early years several owners and names before she in 1929 was named “Snarken” the first time. In 1959 she was acquired by Odd Östlund, born 1910. and since then she has been skippered by the Östlund family, Odd Östlund and his son Ole Östlund with home port Trondheim, Norway. Her sail plan has during the years been modified several times, however, her hull and keel configuration has mainly remained the same, except for a slight modification to the foremost part of the lead keel which is subject for restoration.
"Snarken" home port Trondheim, Norway 1907
The following webpages will take you from her conceival until today, related to the development of the international yacht rating rule; the “R-rule” since before WWI.
The information compiled is the result of comprehensive research work. Thanks to Anita K. Johansen for support and patience. Although a lot of information has been gathered there are many loopholes to be filled in, as what happened with “Snarken” during WWII when she carried the name “Elcoma”? If you or anyone you know have information adding to and/or correcting information to anything on these webpages, in regards to yachts, rating rules, and in particular to “Snarken”, please do not hesitate to contact me, firstname.lastname@example.org
“Snarken” on the Trondheimsfjord 2007, photo Ole J. Storaas
”Snarken” was originally designed by Johan Anker (1871-1940) under the Scandinavian S-rule (1917-1922). She was one of five yachts laid down 1919 at Anker & Jensen shipyard in Vollen, Asker outside Oslo, Norway based upon Ankers drawing of 27-9-1918. She was ordered by engineer Arne Blakstad, Oslo, and given yard no. 223. The four other Eight Metres in the same serie were yard no. 220, 221, 225 and 227.
Seilas yachting magazine of April 23rd 1919 reports on page 79 about four Eight metres being constructed at Anker & Jensens Verft in Vollen, Asker that spring, i.e. 8mS "Betty III" ordered by shipowner Jac.M. Lindvig, Kristiania, one 8mS for Engineer Arne Blakstad, one 8mS for Mr. Mathias Christophersen, Tönsberg and one 8mS (owner not mentioned). The 3 yachts ordered in addition to the one ordered by Mr. Arne Blakstad, are to be known as sH34 "Betty III" (yard no 220), sH35 "Knabb" and sH37 "Koh-I-noor". The owner of sH35 "Knabb" is Mr. Nils M. Thomas, Kristiania (Oslo) who won the Kattegat Cup back to Norway in 1917 with H5 "Quinta".
Another 8mS to be known as "Trolljo III", was further ordered by Mr.Gunnar Rabbe, Kristiania. "Trolljo III" was given the vacant sail no. sH31.
It is likely that the 8mS ordered by Arne Blakstad was given first sailno. sH36 and named "Avance II".
Later in 1919 the order by engineer Arne Blakstad must have been cancelled and sailno. sH36 became vacant. This probably due to the ongoing discussions about revisons to the International Rule. Engineer Blakstad was in 1919 racing in the 6mR(1907) Class with L3 "Ven".
The vacant sailnr sH36 is given to the last 8mS design by H. J. Svenningsen and constructed by Sigurd Lie in Sarpsborg 1919 for Olav Engelhardtsen, Kristiania (Oslo) named "Anchen".
The yacht to be known as 8m "Snarken" remains onshore until she is taken ower by Mr. Eilert Sundt who names her "Verano II". She is spring 1920 modified to the new R-rule of 1919 and given sail no. 8N11, measurement certificate dated June 2nd 1920. Modification consisted of increasing her beam above floating water line fore and aft the measurement point (55%) and adding on cabin roof.
"Verano II" is the following season measured to the S-rule of 1917, certificate dated May 14th 1921. However, she is for reasons to be told not accepted by the S-yacht owners to race in the 8mS Class, and she is in KNS register listed under the First Rule Class of 1907 (the old Class)as she was laid down in spring 1919 before the 2nd R-rule came about. Her name as listed was "Fandango II", ex "Siva" ex "Verano". In 1929 she is given the name "Snarken" and in KNS register 1933-34 she is listed as sH38 "Snarken".
The S-rule of 1917:
The S-rule came about as a result of consultations between the Scandinavian yacht designers Alfred Benzon from Denmark, Karl Ljungberg, Sweden and Johan Anker, Norway. All designers agreed that the development of yacht design based upon the international R-rule of 1907 was going in the wrong direction with narrow hulls and large gaff sail plans, and less convenient for cruising.
In 1914 the first 8mR yacht with Bermuda sail plan was constructed at Fairlie, UK designed by W.Fife & Son. Until then Bermuda sail plan had only been adopted on smaller yachts as in the 6mR Class. The yacht named “Ierne” (note 1) was the last 8mR to be constructed in UK before WWI. During the War she was sold to Norway, and after the War she won the gold medal for Norway in the old 8mR(1907) Class during the 1920 Antwerpen Olympics.
H12 “The Truant” (Fife1910) and H17 “Ierne” (Fife 1914)
Other UK designed Eight Metres sold to Norway during WWI were; H7 “Garraveen” designed by Morgan Giles and constructed by Nicholson & Pulton, Southampton 1914; H8 “Lars Kagg” designed by W. Fife and constructed by G.H.Liljegren, Gothenburg 1913, and H12 “The Truant” designed by W.Fife and constructed by Fairlie 1910.
Several Eight Metres were now fitted out with Marconi rig and Bermuda sail plan. In 1914 KNS had won The Kattegat Cup with H5 “Quinta” with gaff rig. In 1915 and 1916 GKSS won the Cup to Sweden with 8mR “Tuttan” in 1915, and 8mR “Angelika” in 1916. Defender and challenger from KNS in both years was 8mR “Guri” designed by Anker and constructed by Anker & Jensen in 1915.
Marconi rig and Bermuda sail plan on 8mR yachts and upwards put emphasis on larger and more costly hulls for the same rating R. The most extreme gaff Eight Metres carried more than 120 m2 of sail, which was not practical on a Bermuda sail plan with higher masts, increased heeling momentum and long booms. The development was to start cutting back on sail area and increase other speed factors in the rating formula such as length. Still with limited beam and girth difference. Consequently a new Eight meter with Bermuda sail plan designed under the R(1907) rule would have the same hull size as an old 9 meter and escalated costs. Anker & Jensen was at the time one of Europes largest yacht construction yards, and the War together with increased construction costs were not good for business. As such the Bermuda sail plan called for changes in the measurement rule in order to keep hull size and construction costs down.
Scandinavian Sailing Federation was founded in 1915 with Johan Anker as its first chairman.
During the Federations meeting in October 1915 in Copenhagen a new rule, the S-rule of 1916 was laid down. It was, however, only constructed one yacht in Norway (7mS "Pirat") to the S-rule of 1916, as the rule proved not to meet the designers expectations.
8mR(old) "Tuttan" GKSS, Quinta" KNS, and "Ea II" KDY
In 1917 GKSS defender of the Kattegatt Cup was 8mR “Tuttan” who had won the Cup in 1915. KNS challenger this year was again “Quinta” who had returned to Norway from Denmark and been fitted out with a new Bermuda racing sail plan, same as “Tuttan”, GKSS and “Ea II”, KDY. Winner of the Kattegatt cup in 1917 became 8mR(old) “ Quinta”, KNS.
8mR "Quinta" with Bermuda sail:
However, the Scandinavian designers Anker, Benzon and Ljungberg continued their work. The R-rule of 1907 had been made valid for a period of 10 years up til December 31st 1917. The yards were eager to keep up construction of new yachts. The designers all agreed upon the weaknesses of the R-1907 rule (narrow yachts with large sail areas hard to manage and less cruiser friendly). Due to the War no meeting could be called for in IYRU and the Scandinavians acted on their own. A modified R-rule eliminating beam B from the rating formula (see note 2), and with increased penalty on sail area was agreed by the Scandinavian Sailing Federation in 1917. This rating rule known as the Scandinavian rule, S-rule of 1917 was in force from Jan 1st 1918 and made valid for a period of 5 years. The scantlings of the S-yachts remained as set by Lloyds for the R (1907) yachts, with a strengthened bow beam.
In a meeting on Feb. 24th 1918 the Scandinavian Sailing Federation (SSF) decided that the S-Eights racing sail no should be identified with a half sized letter “s” on top of the 8mR(1907) Class identification letter “H”. Numbers to be managed by SSF.
As to racing between yachts certified to the R-rule of 1907 and yachts certified to the S-rule of 1917, SSF decided that the R-Eights should give the S-Eights an handicap of 12 sec per nautical mile in wind forces less than 5m/sec. This due to the R-1907 yachts larger sail area.
The first 8mS-yacht “Bobo 2”, designed by Svenningsen and constructed by Herbern Baatbyggeri in 1918 was given racing sail no sH21. Her successor was Johan Ankers “Brand V” constructed 1918 (drawing date 29-11-1917) and given racing sail no sH22.
sH23 “Ariadne” was designed by A. von Lindholm, Denmark and constructed at Orlogsværftet, Copenhagen. Then followed sH24 “Pingvin IV”, sH25 “Apache”, sH26 “Hei paa dig”, sH27 “La France”, sH28 “Baus”, sH29 “Aljuca III, all constructed by Anker & Jensen in accordance with Johan Ankers drawing of 29-11-1917. The last one ordered in this serie of eight Anker yachts was sH31 ”Sans Souci” who later become sH33 "Rocambole".
sH30 ”Bidevind” was designed by Bjarne Aas and constructed at Fredrikstad Baatbyggeri, Norway 1918. sH32 “Borgila”(Sif) was designed by C.O.Liljegren and constructed by G.R.Liljegren, Gothenburg, Sweden 1918.
KNS spring regatta June 8th and 9th 1918 (S-1917 and R-1907 Classes);
8mS; 4 competitors; sH21 "Bobo II", sH25 "Apache", sH26"Hei paa dig", sH30"Bidevind". Winner both days "Apache", time elapsed Saturday 2.37.15, Sunday 5.21.21
8mR(old); 7 competitors; H5 "Quinta", H6 "Nina III" (ex Guri), H7 "Garraveen", H9 "Brita", H12 "The Truant", H17 "Ierne", H8 "Lars Kagg". Winner both days "Garraveen", time elapsed Saturday 2.33.20, Sunday 4.59.29.
In 1919 a further eight 8mS yacht hulls were contracted based upon the S-rule; sH31 "Trolljo III", sH34“Betty III”, sH35“Knabb”, sH37“Koh-I-Noor” and one yacht ordered by Arne Blakstad remaining onshore i.e.”Snarken” (note 3), were all laid down based upon Johan Ankers drawing of 27-9-1918. 8mS “Anchen” was designed by H.J. Svenningsen and constructed at Sarpsborg. It is likely that "Snarkens" first sailno and name was sH36 "Avance II". As Blakstad most probably cancelled his order "Snarken" remained onshore and sailno sH36 was given to "Anchen". Two yachts without given sail racing no. designed by L.K.Jacobsen “Inger Edel” and “Vela”, were constructed at Vela yard in Bergen.
Scandinavian Sailing Federation (SSF) decided to move the Kattegatt cup to the new 8mS Class. Defender for KNS, and winner both years was sH25 “Apache”. Challenger in 1918 was sH32”Borgila”, GKSS which after the races was taken over by H. Haraldsen, Skien, (note 4) Norway and named “Sif”. In 1919 the challenger was sH23 “Ariadne”, KDY who did not make it to the start in 1918.
Summary sheet of KNS regattas in 1919.
In the 8mS Class 11 competitors, sH25 "Apache", sH26 "Hei paa dig", sH21 "Bobo II", sH30 "Bidevind", sH34 "Betty III", sH37 "Koh-i-Noor", sH33 "Rocambole", sH27 "La France", sH29 "Aljuca III", sH32 "Sif", sH35 "Knabb". (sH33 "Rocambole", sH34 "Betty III", sH35“Knabb” and sH37 "Koh-i-Noor" new 1919. sH33 Rocambole the last of Ankers 8mS design of 29-11-1917 laid down in 1918 as sH31 Sans Souci. sH34 Betty III, sH35 Knabb and sH37 Koh-i-Noor are of the same Anker drawing of 27-9-1918 as Snarken (Avance II/Verano II) and Trolljo III. Trolljo III given the vacant sail no sH31, and sH36 Avance II have not made it to the starting line in 1919); Winners "Betty III" (4), "Apache" (2), "La France (1),"Hei-paa-dig" (1).
In the 8mR(1907) Class only 4 competitors, H6 "Nina III", H17 "Ierne", H7 "Garraveen", H8 "Lars Kagg". Winners "Ierne" (3), "Garraveen (3), "Nina III" (2).
In Finland some of the R-1907 yachts were fitted out with Marconi rigs and Bermuda sail plan and measured in to the S-rule. Finland had for years cooperated with Swedish yachtsmen in the Baltics, and in 1920 Finland became a permanent member of Scandinavian Sailing Federation.
In total 20 Eight Metre S-yachts were constructed in Scandinavia in 1918 and 1919, mostly in Norway. Of these Anker & Jensen constructed 13 yachts, 8 based upon Ankers drawing dated 29-11-1917 and 5 based upon Ankers drawing of 27-9-1918.
The number of 8mS yachts with racing sail numbers was in 1919 just as high as in the R (1907) Class.
As such the S-rule was a success keeping up construction work at the yards. The cost of an S-yacht with Bermuda sail plan was comparative to the cost of an R (1907) gaff rigger.
Racing between the R (1907) and S (1917) Eight Metres was regulated by SSF such as the R (1907) yachts should give the S (1917) yachts a handicap of 12 sec per nautical mile in wind forces less than 5 m/sec.
However, the uncertainty arose after the War in 1919. To what extent would the outcome of the discussions within IYRU members in regard to revisions to the R-rule of 1907 reflect next years Olympic regatta in Antwerpen? For those who were looking for qualifying and racing in the Olympics, IYRU’s decision would have a great impact. Johan Anker himself and his Scandinavian allies advocated as such for the S-rule to become the new international R-rule?
The new R-rule of 1919
WWI had ended in Nov. 1918 and the upcoming Olympic games in Antwerpen 1920 called for decisions to be made in regard to sailing competition, Classes and no of Classes. The R-rule of 1907 had formally elapsed on Dec 31st 1917, however, the Class was very much alive in Europe after the war. Johan Anker and his colleagues within the Scandinavian Sailing Federation argued strongly for revisions to the rating rule of 1907 to take place. They were advocating for the S-rule to become the new international R-rule. With 25 yachts (8mS, 10mS and 12mS) constructed under the S-rule they where committed to fight for the interests of their clients, of which several were looking for qualifying for the Olympic games in 1920.
Finally a meeting was called for in London in Oct. 1919 to agree upon revisions to the measurement rule and other matters. The alterations agreed to the R-rule, were in line with the ones made by the S-rule, beam B was left out of the formula, and increased penalty was put on sail area S although only 85% of the jib area should be included. Measured waterline length was to be taken 1.5% of the class rating above floating waterline, compared to 1% above in the S-rule. The measurement method of girth G and d were adjusted in line with the S-rule. Other changes were in factors and limitations. The British yachtsmen favoured larger hulls in order to improve yacht seaworthiness for cruising in British waters. Johan Anker argued for putting cabin roofs on the 8m Class in order to meet cruising needs without escalating construction cost. The British yachtsmen argued strongly for their point of view and the “compromise” was to increase bonus on freeboard height F in the rating rule, encouraging designers to add one more planking above water. Further a minimum displacement requirement was introduced. However, no limitations were set outruling Johan Ankers last designs i.e. the constructed S-rule yachts from being re-measured and certified under the new R-rule. Cabin roof on 8 meters was made voluntary. In 1928 this became a permanent requirement.
The meeting in London decided to have Lloyds to develop scantlings for the new international R-classes to be presented and agreed upon in 1921. Until then the scantlings for the R-class of 1907 should be in force. Yachts certified to the new R-rule should have Class identification 8, country code and yacht racing no. in their sails.
For the Olympic Games in Antwerpen 1920 racing was called for in both the old international R-1907 classes and the new international R-1919 classes.
Running one of Europes largest yacht construction yards, it was vital to Johan Anker´s marketing, that his yacht designs was among the top best in the Olympics. Returning home from London to Vollen outside Oslo he started looking ahead for the challenge to come in 1920.
Having got the London meetings acceptance for re-certification of his latest designs Johan Anker made preparations for commission the S-yachts to the new international R-rule. He put cabin roof on sH22 “Brand V”, adjusted her sail plan, re-measured her and certified her to the new R-rule, with new racing sail no. 8N1.
Ankers skill as one of the worlds best yacht designers was again proven. He tailor made a new Eight metre design to the new R-rule. The yacht constructed based upon drawing dated 20-01-1920 was 8mR(new) “Sildra”, sail racing no 8N2.
8N2 “Sildra” under construction at Anker &Jensen in Vollen, Asker
Drawing 8mR Interior and cabin roof: A&J yard no 246, "Brand VI".
A comparison between the converted 8N1 (sH22) “Brand V” and the tailor designed 8N2 “Sildra” under the new R-rule of 1919 gives the following data in the rating formula;
“Brand V” “Sildra”
Overall length; 13,74 m 14,73 m
Measured waterline length
(1,5%R above L.W.L.) 9,47 m 9,72 m
Girth 1/4G 0,93 m 1,05 m
Difference 2d 0,18 m 0,07 m
Sail area S 86,87 m2 80,53 m2
Freeboard F 0,73 m 0,85 m
Sail metre, rating R (1919) 7,94 8,00
SH22 “Brand V” rated 7,99 under the S-rule with a sail area of 97,52 m2. Her converted sail area as 8N1 “Brand V” is cut back more than just calculating 85% of the jib area under the new R-rule, giving her a rating R=7,94.
Based upon the conversion of “Brand V”, several of the 8m S-yachts constructed in 1918 and 1919 were converted to the new international R-rule of 1919 with cabin roofs and new racing sail no. Not all sail areas were cut back, only re-measured with new sail no.
KNS yachting magazine of April 1920 reports about one 8mS for wholesalor Eilert Sundt to be modified to the new international R-rule and one new international 8m for N.N. These two yachts are Eight metres “Verano II” i.e. “Snarken” and “Sildra”.
“Snarken”, named “Verano II” measurement certificate dated June 2nd 1920.
Anker and his friends in KNS took no chanches. “Sildra” was before the Olympics an unproven design. Her hull was as large as an old 9 metre and sail area less than any other previous Eight metre. While the hull of "Brand V" was more in line with an old 8 metre.
9mR “Pandora” designed by Johan Anker and constructed by Anker & Jensen in 1907 had been acquired by Scott Hansen who increased her gaff sail area and in 1913 measured her to the handicap Class (note 5) with rating 9,63 s.l.
In 1920 Scott-Hansen fitted out “Pandora” with Marconi rigg and Bermuda sail plan and measured her to the new 8mR-rule with racing sail no. 8N12 (note6). The attempt was likely not a success as “Pandora” in 1921 again are sailing with her old gaff rig.
Another well reputated challenger in the 8mR-1919 Class Olympic qualification races became 8mR (old) “Sans Atout”, racing sail no H11 in the R-1907 Class. “Sans Atout” was designed by Johan Anker and constructed by Anker & Jensen in 1908. She won the silver medal for Sweden in the 1912 Stockholm Olympics. KNS yachting magazine Seilas reports in March 1918; “Sans Atout” 8mR(old) is sold by C.W Scappel, London to Olav Stene, Fredrikstad, Norway. “Sans Atout” was commissioned to the new R-rule of 1919 with sail racing no. 8N16.
In Norway 17 yachts were in 1920 given race sailing no. under the new
R-rule of 1919:
Sail no. R(1919), name, Sail no, S and R(1907), name:
8N1 “Brand V” ex sH22 ”Brand V” Anker & Jensen 1918
8N2 “Sildra” "new" Anker & Jensen 1920
8N3 “Apache” ex sH25 “Apache” Anker & Jensen 1918
8N4 “Rocambole” ex sH33 “Rocambole” Anker & Jensen 1919
8N5 “Hei-paa-dig” ex sH26 ”Hei-paa-dig” Anker & Jensen 1918
8N6 ”Lyn” ex sH27 ”La France” Anker & Jensen 1918
8N7 “Aljuca” ex sH29 “Aljuca III” Anker & Jensen 1918
8N8 “Bidevind” ex sH30 “Bidevind” Bjarne Aas, Fredrikstad
8N9 ”Inger” ex sH34 ”Betty III” Anker & Jensen 1919
8N10 “Knabb” ex sH35 “Knabb” Anker & Jensen 1919
8N11 “Verano II” 8mS "Snarken" Anker & Jensen 1919, launched 1920
8N12 “Pandora” 9mR(old) Anker & Jensen 1907
8N13 “Spurt IV” ex sH28 ”Baus II” Anker & Jensen 1918
8N14 ”Sif” ex sH32 ”Borgila” (Sif) C.O.Liljegren, Gothenburg 1918
8N15 “Koh-I-Noor” ex sH37 ”Koh-i-Noor” Anker & Jensen 1919
8N16 ”Sans Atout” ex H11 “Sans Atout” Anker & Jensen 1908
8N17 “Trolljo III” ex sH31 ”Trolljo” Anker & Jensen 1919, reconstr. 1920
Only 8N2 “Sildra” was tailor designed to the new R-rule of 1919. 8 N11"Verano II" was modified from S to R (new international). Another 13 yachts were converted S-yachts. The remaining 2 yachts were converted from the old R (1907) Class, i.e. 9mR “Pandora” and 8mR(old) H11 “Sans Atout”.